## PHY 436: Solid State Physics II

3 credits | Prerequisites: PHY 101, PHY 102, MAT 104, PHY203

### Course rationale

This is one of the elective courses offered by the university, which fulfills the requirement for graduates who wish to major in Physics. The course forms a one-year standard course in Solid State Physics. PHY203 is a prerequisite course for this course It is highly recommended that the students must have a fair amount of background in mathematics. Especially, knowledge of Calculus will be required sometimes. The course will lay emphasis mainly on a physical description of processes rather than complicated mathematical derivations.

### Course content

Electrical properties in metals: electrical conductivity at high frequencies; dielectric response of an electron gas; motion in magnetic fields; electron in a periodic potential; approximate solution near a zone boundary; number of orbital in a band; construction of Fermi surface. Review of Semiconductor: Energy Levels and Energy Bands, Classification of solids in terms of energy bands; Bonds in semiconductor; Intrinsic & Extrinsic semiconductor; n-type & p-type semiconductor; p-n junction; semiconductor diode; forward/reverse bias; I-V curve. Dielectric Properties: Macroscopic electric field; Local field; Dielectric constant; Electronic; ionic and orientation polarizabilities; Clausius-Mossotti relation: Measurement of dielectric constant; general properties of ferroelectric materials; dipole theory of ferroelectricity; spontaneous polarization; ferroelectric domain; piezoelectricity & pyroelectricty; relaxation and dielectric losses; electromechanical transducers. Magnetic properties of solids: Langevin’s dia- and paramagnetism; quantum theory of paramagnetism; paramagnetic susceptibility of conduction electron; ferri and ferromagnetism; anti-ferromagnetism; ferrites; Curie-Weiss law; Heisenberg model; spin waves; magnetic relaxation and resonance phenomena. Superconductivity: Basic properties of superconductors; Type-1 and Type-2 superconductors; critical field; Meissner effect; thermodynamics of superconductors: London equations; penetration depth; coherence length; superconductors; modern theory. of superconductivity; high TC superconductors. Optical phenomena in solids: color of crystal; exactions; photoconductivity; phosphorescence; excitations and emission; electro-luminescence. Defects in solids: Point defects; lattice vacancies; diffusion; dislocations.

### Course objectives

- Familiarize and memorize the basic concept of Electrical, magnetic and optical properties of solids.
- Familiarize and memorize the energy bands in semiconductors and their current-voltage characteristics and biasing.
- Understand and memorize the dielectric, ferroelectric properties, piezo and pyroelectricity orientation of polarizabilities,
- Recognize and solve numerical problems related to dielectric constants and dielectric losses using the proper mathematical forms, like algebra and basic calculus.
- Familiarize and remember the basic concepts of the quantum theory of Para magnetism, and the paramagnetic susceptibility of conduction electrons.
- Understand and remember Curie-Weiss law, Heisenberg’s model, spin waves, magnetic relaxation, and resonance.
- Familiarize and memorize the basic properties of superconductors, the thermodynamics of superconductors, and the modern theory of superconductivity.
- Familiar with and memorize Optical phenomena in solids like, the color of crystal; exactions, photoconductivity, phosphorescence, excitations, and emission, electro-luminescence.

### References

- The Modern theory of Solids: Blakemore; J. S.: Cambridge University Press; 1st edition.
- Solid State Physics: Philadelphia.: Neil. W. Ashcroft and N. David. Mermin; Cornell University Sauncers Co.: Lott et al.: 2nd edition.
- An introduction to Solid State Physics: C. Kittle; John Wiley and Sons; N.Y: John Wiley & Sons: 8th edition.
- Introduction to Solid State Physics: A. J. Dekker; Prentice-Hall N.J: L.V. Azaroff, Tata McGraw-Hill Publishing Company Ltd
- Introductory Solid State Physics: H. P. Myers: CRC Press: 2nd edition.