## PHY 308: Semiconductor Physics

3 credits | Prerequisites: PHY 304

### Course rationale

A semiconductor has revolutionized our life. The advent of the transistor has given us the comfort of using modern technology. Day by day, semiconductor technology is improving, and it can be projected that the future is the era of Nanotechnology. While new devices are showing the light, it is important to understand their physics from a fundamental point of view. This electric course is designed to gain knowledge about the physics of semiconductors.

### Course content

Review of Quantum Mechanics: Schrodinger equation, interpretation of wave functions, infinite potential well, potential barrier, tunneling, Hilbert space, bra-ket, operator, uncertainty relations, Schrodinger equation in 3-dimensions, radial and angular equation, spin; Energy Band Structure In Semiconductors: free electron model, Bloch theorem, crystal structure, Kronig-Penney model, band structure, pseudopotential method, energy band calculation, spin-orbit interaction, k,p perturbation; Effective Mass Approximation: Wannier function, effective mass, shallow impurity level, impurity levels of Ga and Si, electron motion under external field; Semiconductor In Equilibrium: density of states, statistical laws, Fermi-Dirac probability function, Fermi energy, equilibrium distribution of electron and holes, dopant atoms and energy levels, extrinsic semiconductor, statistics of donors and acceptors, charge neutrality, position of Fermi energy levels; Electron-Phonon Interaction: lattice vibrations, acoustic mode, optical mode, harmonic approximation, quantum harmonic oscillator; Carrier Transport Phenomena: drift, diffusion, graded impurity distribution, Hall effect, carrier generation and recombination, Boltzmann transport equation, scattering probability, transition matric element, scattering rate and relaxation time, mobility; p-n Junction and Diode: basic structure, zero applied bias, built-in potential barrier, electric field, space charge width, reverse applied bias, junction capacitance, diode operations; Metal-OxideSemiconductor-Field-Effect-Transistor: two dimensional MOS structure, energy band diagrams, work function difference, flat band voltage, threshold voltage, capacitance voltage relationship, basic MOSFET operations, frequency limitations; Quantum Structures: two dimensional electron gas systems, quantum well, HEMT, transport phenomena in two dimensional electron gas, mesoscopic physics, Landauer formula, Buttiker-Landauer formula, ballistic electron transport, Coulomb blockade, single electron transistor, quantum dots.

### Course objectives

- Understand the basic concepts of semiconductor physics.
- Understand band structure of semiconductor.
- Use quantum and statistical mechanics to understand semiconductor in equilibrium.
- Understand the basic concepts of carrier transport.
- Apply semiconductor physics to different important devices.

### References

- Semiconductor Physics And Devices: Basic Principles (4th edition) by Donald A. Neamen
- Basic Semiconductor Physics (3rd edition) by Chihiro Hamaguchi
- Fundamentals of Semiconductors: Physics and Materials Properties (4th edition) by Peter Yu, and Manuel Cardona
- Advanced Theory of Semiconductor Devices by Karl Hess