A substance that flows is called a fluid. The importance of understanding the mechanics of fluids is apparent from when we turn on our kitchen faucets, thus activating flow through a network of pipes and valves, to when we drive our cars, which rest on pneumatic tires, have hydraulic shock absorbers, and pump gasoline through complex piping system. In fact, our very existence depends on fundamental principles of fluid mechanics – the flow of blood through our bodies.
Microfluidic is a subdiscipline of fluid mechanics which studies the behavior of fluids through channels typically of a few to hundreds of microns, and the technology of manufacturing microdevices containing chambers and tunnels through which fluids flow or are confined. Fluids behave very differently on the micrometric scale than they do in everyday life: these unique features are the key to new scientific experiments and innovations. Microdevices offer many advantages such as process safety, low cost to manufacture, less use of chemicals and reagents, better process control, simpler process optimization, rapid design implementation, and easier scale-up through “numbering up”. Computer Fluidic Dynamics (CFD) software is an immensely important tool nowadays to simulate behavior and characteristics (evaluate fluid flow, velocity field, fluid concentration, mixing index, pressure drop) of fluids on micro-scale. As a result, the application of microfluidics is increasing daily in various applications such as the chemical process and synthesis, particle synthesis, biomedical and biochemical analysis, dynamic cell separation, Bio Micro-Electro-Mechanical Systems (BioMEMS), micro-total analysis systems, materials science, healthcare and medicine, applications in energy and the environment, Chemical and Mechanical Engineering, Aerospace Engineering and Food industries, etc.