## PHY 104: Heat and Thermodynamics

3 credits | Prerequisites: PHY 101, MAT 104

### Course rationale

This is one of the courses offered by the university which is mandatory for students who wish to major in Physics. The course forms a one-year standard course in Heat and Thermodynamics. Prerequisites for this course are PHY 101, PHY 102, and MAT 104. It is highly recommended that the students must have a fair amount of background in Linear Algebra. Especially, knowledge of Calculus of Several Variables will be required sometimes.

### Course content

Introduction and the Kinetic Theory of Gas: Concept of temperature and heat; Absolute Scale Temperature; Quantity of heat; Equations of state; Zeroth Law; Microscopic model of an ideal gas and gas laws; real gases; Van der Waal’s equation; critical constants; the concept of pressure and temperature in kinetic theory; mean free path; molecular collisions and transport phenomena; limitations of kinetic theory. The First Law of Thermodynamics: Heat as energy and work; Work and heat in volume changes; Internal energy; Reversible and irreversible process; First Law of Thermodynamics; Calculation of Work; Heat and Internal Energy for Adiabatic; Isothermal; Isobaric and Isochoric process. The Second Law of Thermodynamics: Heat engines; Efficiency of Heat engines; Carnot’s cycle and Carnot’s Theorem; the concept of Entropy; Change in entropy in reversible; irreversible and cyclic processes; Different statements of the Second law of thermodynamics. Kelvin’s statement of 2nd law. Applications of Thermodynamics: i) Cooling of gasses by free expansion and Throttling (JouleThomson Process); ii) Adiabatic demagnetization; iii) Heat pumps and refrigerators; iv) Thermoelectric phenomena; Seebeck, Peltier and Thompson effects. The Third Law of Thermodynamics and Thermodynamic Potentials: The Third Law of Thermodynamics; Thermodynamic Potentials; Enthalpy; Helmholtz and Gibbs free energies; Heat capacities and their interrelation. Phase Transition: Classification of Phase transitions. First-order and second-order phase transitions and their examples. Clausius-Clapeyron’s equation; Chemical potential. Gibb’s

phase rule.

### Course objectives

- Familiarize and memorize the fundamental concept of the kinetic theory of gases.
- Understand and memorize the laws of thermodynamics and various thermodynamics process.
- Recognize and solve numerical problems related to thermodynamics and gases using the proper mathematical form, like algebra and basic calculus.
- Undertake energy conservation law in thermal systems and evaluate the effects of heat and temperature in a mechanical system.
- Familiarizer with the working principle of heat engines and refrigerators.
- Identify and solve numerical problems of first and second-order phase transitions.
- Use Helmholtz and Gibbs free energies, Thermodynamic Potentials, and Enthalpy to express a system in detail.

### References

- Heat and Thermodynamics: M. Zemansky and Dittman; McGraw-Hill: McGraw-Hill Companies: 8th edition.
- Fundamentals of Physics: David Halliday; Robert Resnick; Jearl Walker : John Wiley & Sons: 13th edition.
- Physics: David Halliday; Robert Resnick; K. Krane: John Wiley and Sons: John Wiley & Sons, Inc: 5th edition.
- Equilibrium Thermodynamics: Adkins, C.J: Cambridge University Press: 3rd edition.
- Fundamental of statistical and thermal Physics: F.Reif; McGraw-Hill: Waveland Pr Inc: 3rd edition.