## PHY 103: Waves, Oscillations and Optics

3 credits | Prerequisites: MAT 104, PHY 102

### Course rationale

This is one of the courses offered by the university which is mandatory for the students who wish to major in Physics. The course forms a one-year standard course in Waves, Oscillations, and Optics. Prerequisites for this course are PHY 101, PHY 102, and MAT 104. It is highly recommended that the students must have a fair amount of background in Linear Algebra. Especially, knowledge of Calculus of Several Variables will be required sometimes.

### Course content

Oscillations: Periodic and Oscillatory Motion with examples; Elastic restoring force; Simple harmonic motion (SHM); mass-spring System; Energy conservation Mass-Spring System; Differential equation of SHM & its solutions with explanation; Examples of SHM; Damped SHM; Forced Oscillation; Resonance; Combinations of simple harmonic oscillation: Lissajous Figures. Mechanical Waves and Vibrating Bodies: Waves in elastic media: Transverse and Longitudinal Waves; Periodic Waves; Mathematical description of a wave; Phase velocity and group velocity; Principle of Superposition; Boundary condition for a string; Standing waves; Huygens principle; Vibration of a string fixed at both ends. Acoustic Phenomena: Sound Waves; Intensity level and loudness; Quality and pitch; Beats; the Doppler effects; Application of acoustic Phenomena. Nature and propagation of Light: Nature; Reflection and Refraction; Total internal reflection; Reflection at a plane surface; Reflection at a spherical surface; Focal point and focal length; Lenses: Thin lens; Diverging and Converging lenses. Interference: Coherent sources; Conditions for Interference; Mathematical derivation of Interference; Young’s Experiment; Fringe width; Fresnel bi-prism; Newton’s Ring; Michelson interferometer. Diffraction: Fresnel and Fraunhofer Diffractions; Fraunhofer Diffraction at a single slit and double slit; diffraction grating; Transmission and reflection gratings. Polarization: Definition of Polarization; Plane; Circular and Elliptic Polarizations; Malus Law; Polarization by the polarizer and by reflection. Full-wave, half-wave & quarterly wave plates; Nicol & Wollaston prisms. Dispersion and Scattering: Normal and anomalous dispersion; Cauchy and Sellmeir equation; Rayleigh scattering; polarization log scattering, the blueness of the sky and the sunset and sunrise. Fourier Optics: Fourier transformation in two dimensions, inverse Fourier transformation, examples, Dirac delta function, optical applications, convocation and convolution theorem, Fourier methods in diffraction theory, lens as a Fourier transformation.

### Course objectives

- Familiarize and memorize the fundamental concepts of oscillation, wave, and light, the basic laws that underlie the interaction of waves.
- Recognize, memorize and re-express problems of the mechanical and electromagnetic wave using the proper mathematical form, like matrix, vector, and basic calculus.
- Identify and explain the different modes of oscillation.
- Recognize and solve numerical problems related to wave interaction using the proper mathematical form, like vector and basic calculus.
- Familiarizer with the dual nature of light and identify the wave-particle duality in nature.
- Familiarizer with the various phenomenon of the light such as interference, diffraction, polarization, etc.
- Understand Rayleigh scattering.
- Recognize Fourier transformation and apply it in the lens.

### References

- The Physics of Waves: Howard Georgi, Harvard University
- Vibrations and Waves: A. P. French: CRC Press: 6th edition.
- Fundamental of Optics: F. A. Jenkins and H. E. White, McGraw-Hill, 4th edition
- Introduction to Fourier optics: Joseph W. Goodman
- Fourier Optics: An Introduction: Edward G. Steward