## ECN 200: Introduction to Economics

3 credits | Prerequisites: None

### Course rationale

This is an introductory course in Economics. The rationale of the course is to disseminate a basic understanding of Economics. This course will focus mainly on the prime two branches of Economics: Microeconomics and Macroeconomics. Microeconomics deals with individual decision-making problem and how it affects people. The core topics of microeconomics will be covered in this course, such as consumer theory and behavior, and producer theory, competition, and market structure. Macroeconomics studies the behavior of the main aggregates of the economy. In this course, an attempt will be made to provide an analytical framework for understanding the economy at the national level. The focus will be on macroeconomic aggregates, the causes and costs of inflation and unemployment, and understanding fiscal and monetary policy.

### Course content

Introduction: Understanding the concepts of scarcity, trade-off, opportunity costs, marginal benefit and cost, incentive, efficiency, equality, market power, and externalities. Learn the differences between microeconomics and macroeconomics, positive statement and normative statement, the models of the circular flow diagram, and production possibilities frontier. How Markets Work: The Market Forces of Supply and Demand, Elasticity and its Application, Government Policies and the impact on demand and supply. Markets and Welfare Consumer surplus, producer surplus, and the efficiency of markets. Also, this course will attempt to study theories of income, employment, inflation, and money. Emphasis will be placed on macroeconomic theory and policy and analysis of macroeconomic data for decision-making. Course objectives are, To learn the principle concepts, theories, and policies of macroeconomics.

### Course objectives

The primary purpose of the course is to disseminate a basic understanding of Economics. This course will focus mainly on the prime two branches of Economics: Microeconomics and Macroeconomics. Microeconomics deals with individual decision-making problem and how it affects people. The core topics of microeconomics will be covered in this course, such as consumer theory and behavior, and producer theory, competition, and market structure. Macroeconomics studies the behavior of the main aggregates of the economy. In this course, an attempt will be made to provide an analytical framework for understanding the economy at the national level. Focus will be on macroeconomic aggregates, the causes and costs of inflation and unemployment, understanding fiscal and monetary policy

### References

- N. Gregory Mankiw, Principles of Microeconomics, Seventh Ed., or above The Dryden Press.
- N. Gregory Mankiw, Principles of Macroeconomics, Ninth Edition, The Dryden Press
- Michael Parkin, Microeconomics, Eleventh Ed., Prentice Hall.
- Paul Samuelson and William Nordhaus, Economics, Nineteenth Ed., McGraw Hill.

### All Courses on Astronomy

## PHY 230: Mathematics for Physics

3 credits | Prerequisites: MAT 104

### Course rationale

This course is mandatory for the students who wish to have a minor in physics. Mathematics is ubiquitous in physics. Therefore, to understand physics properly it is imperative to have a good mastery in mathematics. This course is designed to abridge any gap in mathematics to understand physics.

### Course content

Complex Analysis: introduction, Cartesian and Polar representation, Euler formula, differentiability, Cauchy-Riemann equation, contour integration, Cauchy-Goursat theorem, Cauchy integral formula, Taylor and Laurent series, Cauchy residue theorem. Fourier Series: definition, Fourier exponential series, trigonometric Fourier series; Fourier Transform: Integral transform, Fourier integral, inverse Fourier transform, properties of Fourier transform, Perseval’s theorem; Poisson’s summation formula, Fourier transform in Rd. Vector Analysis: derivatives, and integrals of vector valued functions, gradient vectors and tangent planes; Multivariable Calculus: partial differentiation, functions of several variables, limits and continuity, partial derivatives, vector fields, gradient, divergence, and curl, line, double, and multiple integrals, change of variable in multiple integrals, Jacobian, Green’s theorem, Stokes theorem, Gauss’s theorem. Beta and Gamma Function: beta and gamma integrals, Euler product, reflection formula, duplication formula, asymptotics, digamma function, Hurwitz and Riemann zeta function; Series Solution of Second Order ODEs: Frobenius’s method, series around a regular point, expansion around a regular singular point; Bessel Function: differential equation, generating function, Hankel function, asymptotic expansion; Legendre Polynomial: differential equation, Legendre function of first and second kind, generating function, associated Legendre polynomial, spherical harmonics.

### Course objectives

- Understand different topics of this course.
- Apply Fourier analysis to solve differential equations.
- Understand the basics of complex analysis, and theorems of complex integration.
- Understand some important special functions of physics.
- Apply these special functions to different problems arising in physics.

### References

- Fourier Series and Boundary Value Problems (8th edition) by James Ward Brown, Ruel V. Churchill
- Fourier Analysis: An Introduction by Elias M. Stein, and Rami Shakarchi
- Complex Variables and Applications (9th edition) by James Ward Brown, Ruel V. Churchill
- Special Functions: A Graduate Text by Richard Beals, and Roderick Wong
- Special Functions by George E. Andrews, Richard Askey, and Ranjan Roy
- Mathematical Methods for Physicists (7th edition) by George B. Arfken, Hans J. Weber, and Frank E. Harris